ЛЕКЦИЯ № 45. The kidneys function
The kidneys are filters which remove waste products from the blood. In the human each is a bean-shaped organ, some four inches long and about two inches wide. The two are situated high up on the posterior abdominal wall behind the peritoneum and in front of the lats ribs and the upper two lunbar transverse processes. Each is invested by a fibrous capsule surrounded by more or less perinephric fat. On the upper pole of each is a supra-renal gland. On the medical side is a notch called the hilum where the vessels and the ureter are attached.
Vertical selections through a kidney discloses three more or less concentric zones. The other light-colored zone is the renal cortex, within this is the darker renal medulla and within this again is a space – the renal sinus which is normally occurred by a fibrous bag called the renal pelvis. The pelvis opens below into the ureter. The cortex extends inwards in a series of renal columns which divide the medulla into a number of renal pyramids. Each pyramid has a free rounded projection – a renal papilla – which lies in a cap – like extension, of the pelvis cal led a renal calyx. The pelvis is lined by transitioual epithelium, which extends the calyces and covers the papillae.
Within the cortex each minute artery presents along its course a convoluted knot, called a glomerulus; the branch which enters the knot is the afferent vessel, that which leaves is she efferent vessel. Each glo-merulus project into the dilated end of its corresponding renal tubule, from which it is separated by a thin layer of cells called glomerular (Bowman" s) capsule; glomerulus plus capsule form a renal (Nalpighi-an) corpuscle. The cortex contains multitudes of such corpuscles, each giving rise to a tubule which passes down into the medul la and back again in the so-called loop of Henle. Back in, the cortex loop ends in a functional tubule which joins а larger collecting tube. Ultimately, a number of collecting tubes combine to form an excretory tube, which opens at the ареx of a papilla into a renal calyx. The efferent vessel from the glomerulus accompanies the loop of Henle, supply ing the tubule on the way and finally ends in a small vein. A renal corpuscule plus its complement of tubules and blood vessels is called a renal unit, or nephron; there are said to be one million such units in each kidney, their tubing totaling a length of some twenty miles.
kidney – почка waste – отходы
bean-shaped organ – орган в форме боба
four inches long – 4 дюйма в длину
two inches wide – 2 дюйма в ширину
posterior – задний
peritoneum – брюшина
ribs – ребра
lumbar – поясничный
transverse – поперченный
perinephric – околопочечный
supra-renal gland – надпочечная железа
notch – разрез
hilum – ворота (органа)
renal cortex – корковый слой
renal medulla – мозговой слой
fibrous – волокнистая
renal pelvis – почечная лоханка
calyces – чашечки
convoluted – замысловатый
dilated – расширенный
to be separated – быть разделенным
loop of henle – петля Шумлянского-Генле
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.
1. They (to tell) me yesterday that you (to get) an excellent mark.
2. When you (to receive) a let ter from your friend?
3. Our grandmother (to cook) dinner from twelve till three yesterday.
4. Look! What beautiful flowers she (to buy)!
5. They (to travel) along the coast of Africa last year.
6. We (not to see) each other for ages.
7. They (to eat) all the apples which I (to bring).
8. When the children (to have) dinner, they (to go) for a walk.
9. Last summer we (to live) in the country and (to go) to the river every day.
10. My sister (to spend) a lot of money yesterday.
11. She is so upset: she (to lose) the key to the front door.
12. By the 1 st of September all the children (to return) from the country.
13. Columbus (to discover) America 500 years ago.
14. Columbus (not to know) that he (to discover) America.
15. I already (to read) five Eng lish books.
16. He (to discuss) the problem with a lot of people before he (to take) a decision.
17. Mother (to bake) a delicious cake! Sit down at the table and let's eat it!
18. She (to read) an Eng lish book the whole evening yesterday.
19. I never (to be) to Greece.
20. You ever (to be) to the Nia gara Falls?
21. At this time yesterday they (to sit) on the sofa and (to listen) to their grandmother who (to tell) them fairy-tales.
22. My friend just (to ring) me up from London.
23. I (to stand) at the tram-stop when it (to begin) raining.
24. We (not to skate) since last winter.
25. We (to go) to the country every year.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из следующих времен: Present, Past, Future Simple; Present, Past Continuous; Present, Past Perfect.
1. We (to go) to school every day.
2. Nick (to do) his home-work by seven o'clock yesterday.
3. You (to help) your father tomorrow?
4. We (to bring) a lot of berries from the wood. Now we shall make jam.
5. Look! Jane (to swim) across the river.
6. What you (to do) at six o'clock yesterday?
7. You ever (to see) the Pyramids?
8. I (to go) to the Caucasus two years ago.
9. When Nick (to come) home yesterday, his mother (to return) and (to cook) dinner in the kitchen.
10. When I (to go) to school yesterday, I suddenly (to remember) that I (to for get) to take my English exercise-book.
11. Yester day grandfather (to tell) us how he (to work) at the factory during the war.
12. I always (to come) to school at a quarter to nine.
13. Yesterday I (to come) to school at ten min utes to nine.
14. Tomorrow Nick (not to go) to the cinema because he (to go) to the cinema yesterday.
15. He already (to be) to the cinema this week. Look! He (to cry).
16. What your brother (to do) now?
17. When you (come) to see me? – I (to come) tomorrow.
18. I (not like) apples. And you (to like) them?
19. He (to come) home in the evening yesterday.
20. I (to ring) you as soon as I can.
21. I (to show) my pets if you like.
22. Now he (to try) to help his father in the garden.
23. I (to send) you a telegram tomorrow.
24. When I (to home) home yesterday, my brother (to sleep).
25. You (to visit) the United States of America next year?
Answer the questions.
1. What are the kidneys?
2. What do filters do?
3. What form do kidneys have?
4. How are kidneys wide and long?
5. Where are kidneys situated in the human"s body?
6. Where opens the pelvis?
7. How a convoluted vascular knot is called?
8. Where does each glomerulus project?
9. What glomerulus and capsule form?
10. What is nephron consists of?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the verb to be in the text. Explain why it is used in such a way?
Find one word, which is a little bit different in meaning from others (найдите одно слово, которое немного отличается от других по смыслу):
1. a) book; b) kidney; c) liver;
2. a) library; b) filters; c) waste;
3. a) peritoneum; b) telephone; c) ribs;
4. a) gland; b) hilum; c) glass;
5. a) apple; b) glomerulus; c) cortex.
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