ЛЕКЦИЯ № 42. Liver

Liver, the pancreas and the kidneys are the organs primarily engaged in the intermediary metabolism of the materials resorbed from the gasro – intestinal tract and in the excretion of metabolic waste products. Of these 3 organs the liver performs the most diverse func tions. It acts as the receiving depot and distributing center for the majority of the products of intestinal digestion and plays a major role in the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and purines.

It controls the concentration of cholesterol esters in the blood and utilizes the sterol in the formation of bile acid. The liver takes in the regulation of the blood volume and in water metabolism and distribution. Its secretion, the bile, is necessary for fat diges tion.

The liver is a site for the formation of the proteins of the blood plasma, especially for fibrinogen, and also forms heparin, also forms heparin, carbohydrate which prevents the clotting of the blood. It has important detoxicating functions and guards the organism against toxins of in testinal origin as well as other harmful substances. The liver in its detoxicating functions and manifold metabolic activities may well be соnsidered the most important gland of the body.

New words

liver – печень

pancreas – поджелудочная железа

kidneys – почки

organ – орган

primarily – прежде всего

engaged – вовлеченный

intermediary – промежуточный

metabolism – метаболизм

gasro-intestinal tract – желудочно-кишечный тракт

excretion – выделение

waste – отходы

diverse – разнообразный

func tions – функции depot – отложение

digestion – переваривание

major role – главная роль

cholesterol – холестерин

esters – жиры

sterol – стерин

bile acid – желчная кислота

regulation – регулирование

fat diges tion – переваривание жиров

blood plasma – плазма крови

fibrinogen – фибриноген

clotting – тромб

origin – происхождение

heparin – гепатит

detoxicating functions – функции детоксикации

toxins – токсины

manifold – разнообразный

gland of the body – железа тела

Спряжение глагола to write в Past Perfect Tense Таблица 15

Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple и Past Perfect.

1. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner.

2. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework.

3. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books.

4. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before.

5. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw).

6. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field.

7. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands.

8. The teacher (to understand) that Marina (not to do) her homework.

9. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come).

10. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o'clock.

11. Tom (to t return) from the cinema by five o'clock.

12. I (to finish) my homework at seven o'clock.

13. I (to finish) my homework by seven o'clock.

14. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money.

15. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film.

16. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work.

17. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home.

18. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good dinner.

19. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer.

20. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to leave).

Answer the questions.

1. Which organs are primarily engaged in the intermediary metabolism?

2. Which of 3 organs perform the most diverse functions?

3. How does it act?

4. Which role does liver play?

5. What does it control?

6. Where the cholesterol esters are concentrated?

7. What the bile is necessary for?

8. What does liver utilize?

9. What prevents the clotting of the blood?

10. What is the most important gland of the body?

Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).

Find the Present Simple Tense in the text. Explain why it is used in such a way?

Find one word, which is a little bit different in meaning from others (найдите одно слово, которое немного отличается от других по смыслу):

1) a) liver; b) jam; c) kidney;

2) a) pancreas; b)organ; c) winter;

3) a) summer; b) blood; c) vein;

4) a) cholesterol; b) ice; c) bile;

5) a) clotting; b) snow; c) vessel.

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