ЛЕКЦИЯ № 33. Pleura

Visceral pleura is a thin serous membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs. A delicate connective tissue layer of collagen and elastin, containing lymphatic channels, vessels, and nerves, supports the membrane. Its surface is covered by simple squamous mesotheli-um with microvilli.

Parietal pleura is that portion of the pleura that continues onto the inner aspect of the thoracic wall. It is continuous with the visceral pleura and is lined by the same mesothelium.

Pleural cavity is a very narrow fluid-filled space that contains mo-nocytes located between the two pleural membranes. It contains no gases and becomes a true cavity only in disease (e. g., in pleural infection, fluid and pus may accumulate in the pleural space). If the chest wall is punctured, air may enter the pleural space (pneumothorax), breaking the vacuum, and allowing the lung to recoil. Parietal pleura lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity; visceral pleura follows the contours of the lung itself.

Pleural cavity: The pleural cavity is the space between the parietal and viscer al layers of the pleura. It is a sealed, blind space. The intro-duc tion of air into the pleural cavity may cause the lung to col lapse (pneumothorax).

It normally contains a small amount of serous fluid elaborated by mesothelial cells of the pleural membrane.

Pleural reflections are areas where the pleura changes direction from one wall to the other. The sternal line of reflection is where the costal pleura is con tinuous with the mediastinal pleura behind the sternum (from costal cartilages 2-4). The pleural margin then passes in-feriorly to the level of the sixth costal cartilage. The costal line of reflection is where the costal pleura becomes continuous with the diaphragmatic pleura from rib 8 in the midclavicular line, to rib 10 in the midaxillary line, and to rib 12 lateral to the vertebral column. Pleural recesses are potential spaces not occupied by lung tissue except during deep inspiration. Costodiaphragmatic recesses are spaces below the inferior borders of the lungs where costal and diaphragmatic pleura are in contact. Costomediastinal recess is a space where the left costal and mediastinal parietal pleura meet, leaving a space due to the cardiac notch of the left lung. This space is occupied by the lingula of the left lung during inspiration.

In nervation of the parietal pleura: The costal and peripheral portions of the diaphragmatic pleu ra are supplied by intercostal nerves.

The central portion of the diaphragmatic pleura and the medi asti-nal pleura are supplied by the phrenic nerve.

New words

visceral – висцеральный

pleura – плевра

delicate – тонкий

collagen – коллаген

elastin – эластин

containing – содержание

lymphatic channels – лимфатические сосуды

nerves – нервы

to support – поддерживать

covered – покрытый

squamous – чешуйчатый

microvilli – микроворсинки

parietal pleura – париетальная плевра

onto aspect – в аспекте

visceral pleura – висцеральная плевра

inspiration – вдохновение

costal – реберный

Степени сравнения прилагательных Таблица 4.

Особые случаи образования степеней сравнения Таблица 5.

Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степень следующих прилагательных. Не забудьте употреблять определенный артикль перед превосходной степенью прилагательных.

Hot, long, short, clever, silly, great, red, black, white, thin, thick, fat, nice, warm, cold, merry small, tall, high, weak, strong, heavy, light, green, dry, clean, dirty, wide, deep, brave.

Переведите на английский язык.

Старый, старше, самый старый, самый старший, мой старший брат, мой старый друг, дальше, самый дальний, самый длинный, короче, счастливый, счастливее, самый счастливый, самый лучший, самый черный, длиннее, хуже, лучше, теплее, ее лучший друг, ее младший сын, его старший сын.

Answer the questions.

1. What is visceral pleura?

2. Is visceral pleura a thin serous membrane or not?

3. What contains lymphatic channels, vessels, and nerves?

4. What covers delicate connective tissue layer?

5. Which portion of the pleura is parietal pleura?

6. What kind of space is pleural cavity?

7. What do pleural cavity contain?

8. In which way air may enter the pleural space?

9. What do normally contain a small amount of serous fluid?

10. What is supplied by intercostal nerves?

Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).

Find the verb to be in the text. Explain why it is used in such a way?

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