ЛЕКЦИЯ № 2. Tissue
A tissue is a group of cells working together to do a special job. A histologist is one who specializes in the study of tissues. The cells, of which the tissues are made, contain from 60 to 99% water. Gases, liquids and solids dissolve in the water. Chemical reactions that are necessary for proper body function are carried on much more readily in a water solution. The water solution and other materials in which the tissues are bathed is slightly salty. This substance is called tissue fluid. It must be mentioned that an insufficiency of tissues fluid is called dehydration and an abnormal accumulation of this fluid caused a condition called edema.
Tissue classification: The 4 main groups of tissues are:
1) epithelial tissue forms elands, covers surfaces and lines cavities;
2) connective tissue holds all parts of the body in Place. This can be fat, cartilage, bone or blood. Blood sometimes is considered a sort of tissue, since it contains cells and performs many of the functions of tissues. However; the blood has many other unique characteristics;
3) nerve tissue conducts nerve impulses all over the body;
4) the muscle tissue is designed for power-producing contractions. The surface of the body and of the tubes or passages leading to the exterior and the surface of the various cavities in the body are lined by cells which are closely approximated to each other; thus have a small amount of intercellular substance. This lining cellular layer is called epithelium. An epithelial layer may be one or many cells in thickness. When it is composed of a single layer, it is called a simple epithelium; when two or more cells in thickness, it is stratified. The nature and consistency of intercellular substance, the matrix, and the amount and arrangement of fibers furnish the basis for the subdivision of connective tissue into three main groups: connective tissue proper, cartilage and bone. In connective tissue the intercellular substance is soft; in cartilage it is firm, yet flexible and elastic; in bone it is rigid due to the deposition of calcium salt in the matrix. In multicellular organisms certain cells developed to a high degree the properties of irritability and conductivity. These cells form the nervous tissues.
The nervous system of higher animals is characterized by the multiplicity of cellular forms and intercellular connections and by the complexity of its functioning. This multiplicity and complexity is the chief feature that distinguishes the nervous tissues from other tissue which are essentially of uniform structure and function.
Muscle tissue is composed of elongated cells which have the power of contracting or reducing their length. This property of contraction is ultimately a molecular phenomenon and is due to the presence of protein molecules. The following three types of muscle tissue occur in the body.
Smooth muscle tissue is found in sheet or tubes forming the walls of many hollow or tubular organs, for example the bladder, the intes tines of blood vessels. The cells forming this tissue are long spin dles with a central oval nucleus. They are usually packed together with all little connective tissue between them.
Striated muscle tissue is composed of cylindrical fibres often of great at length in which separate cells cannot be distinguished. Many small nuclei are found in the fibres lie just under the surface. Cardiac muscle resembles striated muscle in its structure, but smooth one in its action.
tissue – ткань
group – группа
to work – работать
to do – делать
special – особенный, специальный
job – работа
water – вода
gas – газ
liquid – жидкость
epithelial – эпителиальный
layer – слой
muscle – мышца
to occur – встречаться
body – тело
flexible – гибкий
elastic – эластичный
nucleus – ядро
smooth – гладкий
fibre – волокно
cardiac – сердечный
Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употребляться только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускается. Определенный артикль the употребляется и с исчисляемыми, и с неисчисляемыми существительными как в единственном, так и во множественном числе.
E. g. This is a book. The book is interesting (исчисляемое в единственном числе).
This is – meat. The meat is fresh (неисчисляемое).
These are – books. The books are good (множественное число).
Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.
1. This is… pen… pen is red.
2. These are pencils.. pencils are black.
3. This is… soup… soup is tasty.
4. In the morning I eat… sandwich and drink… tea.
5. She gave me… coffee and. cake.. coffee was hot and. cake was tasty.
6. Do you like… ice-cream?
7. I see… book in your… hand. Is… book interesting?
8. She bought… meat,… butter and… potatoes yesterday.
9. She also bought… cake… cake was very… tasty. We ate… cake with. tea.
10. This is… bag… bag is brown.
11. It is my sister's… bag.
12. And this is my… bag. It is… yellow.
13. This is. tree.. tree is green.
14. I can see… boys… boys are playing.
15. I have.bicycle… bicycle is black. My friend has no… bicycle.
16. Our… room is large.
17. We wrote… dictation yesterday… dictation was long.
18. She has two… daughters and one… son. Her… son is… pupil.
19. My… brother's… friend has no… dog.
20. This… pencil is broken. Give me that… pencil, please.
21. She has… ball… ball is… big.
22. I got… letter from my… friend yesterday… letter was interesting.
Answer the questions.
1. What is tissue?
2. What are the tissues made of?
3. How many per cents of water do the cells contain?
4. What is dissolved in water?
5. What reactions are necessary for proper body function?
6. What substance is called tissue fluid?
7. How many groups are in the tissue classification?
8. What is lining cellular layer called?
9. What cells form the nervous tissues?
10. Where is smooth muscle tissue found?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the definite and indefinite articles in the text.
Find one word, which is a little bit different in meaning from others (найдите одно слово, которое немного отличается от других по смыслу):
1) a) tissue; b) body; c) pen;
2) a) water; b) cell; c) circle;
3) a) muscle; b) arm; c) cold;
4) a) elastic; b) smooth; c) brick;
5) a) fibre; b) cardiac; c) line.
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