ЛЕКЦИЯ № 12. Skull
The extensive chapter covers the major bones of the skeleton as well as their associated muscles and tendons. Blood suppfy and inner-vation are reviewed for each muscle group. Bones of the skull may be classified as belonging to the neurocranium (the portion of the skull that surrounds and protects the brain) or the viscerocranium (i. e., the skeleton of the face). Osteology: bones of the neurocranium: Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Ethmoid, Sphenoid.
Bones of the viscerocranium (surface): Maxilla, Nasal, Zygomatic, Mandible. Bones of the viscerocranium (deep): Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Vomer, Lacrimal, Palatine, Inferior nasal concha Articulations: Most skull bones meet at immovable joints called sutures. The sole exception is the temporomandibular joint, a synovial joint that has a hinge-gliding movement. The coronal suture is between the frontal and the parietal bones. The sagittal suture is between two parietal bones. The lambdoid suture is between the parietal and the occipital bones. The bregma is the point at which the coronal suture intersects the sagittal suture and is the site of the anterior fontanelle in an infant.
The lambda is the point at which the sagittal suture intersects the lambdoid suture and is the site of the posterior fontanelle in an infant. The pterion is the point on the lateral aspect of the skull where the greater wing of the sphenoid, parietal, frontal, and temporal bones converge. The temporomandibular joint is between the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the condylar process of the mandible.
The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands and has a dense connective tissue capsule. Structures found within the substance of this gland include the following: Motor branches of the facial nerve. CN VII enters the parotid gland after emerging from the stylomastoid foramen at the base of the skull. Superficial temporal artery and vein. The artery is a terminal branch of the external carotid artery.
External carotid artery: Retromandibular vein, which is formed from the maxillary and superficial temporal veins.
FACE: The muscles of facial expression are derived from the second pharyngeal arch and are supplied by motor branches of CN VII Таблица 2.
Great auricular nerve, which is a cutaneous branch of the cer vical plexus. Auriculotemporal nerve, which is a sensory branch of V3. It supplies the TMJ and conveys postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion to the parotid gland. Parotid (Stensen's) duct, which enters the oral cavity at the level of the maxillary second molar. The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery in the neck. It terminates as the angular artery near the bridge of the nose. The facial vein parallels the course of the facial artery. It terminates by joining the anterior branch.
extensive – обширный
to cover – покрывать
brain – мозг
frontal – лобная
parietal – теменная
temporal – височная
occipital – затылочная
ethmoid – решетчатая
sphenoid – сфеноидальная
maxilla – верхняя челюсть
nasal – носовой
zygomatic – скуловой
mandible – нижняя челюсть
ethmoid – решетчатая
sphenoid – клиновидная
vomer – сошник
lacrimal – слезная
palatine – небная
nasal concha – носовая раковина
Запомните следующие застывшие словосочетания.
to have (cook, make, prepare) – breakfast
Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.
1… third lesson today is… lesson of English.
2. Pete, go to… blackboard.
3. After school I usually go… home.
4. My father always comes from… work late: at eight o'clock or at… half past night.
5. But on… Friday he comes… home early: at half past four or at… quarter to five.
6. On… Satur day and on… Sunday he does not go to… work.
7. I go to… school in… morning, so I get up early.
8. I usually get up at… quarter past seven.
9. I go to… bathroom, turn on… water and wash my face and hands.
10. My father and mother also get up early in. morning.
11. My mother works at… office.
12. She is. typist.
13. My father is… doctor.
14. He works at… polyclinic.
15. We have… breakfast in… kitchen.
16. We eat… porridge and… eggs.
17. We drink. tea.
18. My father and mother leave… home for… work at… half past eight.
19. My father goes to polyclinic, and my mother goes to. office.
20. I don't leave… home with my parents.
Answer the questions.
1. What does the extensive chapter cover?
2. What are blood suppfy and innervation reviewed for?
3. How may bones of the skull be classified?
4. Enumerate the bones of the neurocranium?
5. Enumerate the bones of the viscerocranium (deep)?
6. Enumerate the bones of the viscerocranium (surface)?
7. What is the lambda?
8. Where are the muscles of facial expression derived from?
9. What are the muscles of the scalp?
10. What are the muscles of the nose?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the definite and indefinite articles in the text.
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