55. Advances in blood component separation and plasma treatment for therapeutics

The separation of blood cells from plasma is done routinely by centrifugal techniques.

Membranes for plasma separation.

Membrane modules vary in surface area from about 0,15 to 0,8 m 2. Membrane plasma separation is a relatively simple process. At relatively low transmembrane pressure (generally less than 50 mm Hg), adequate plasma fluxes can be achieved. Equipment requirements are only minimal and the operation is much akin to that for other extracorporeal treatment technologies as hemodialysis, hemofiltration and hemoperfusion.

Membrane of on—line plasma treatment.

Plasma exchange whether by centrifugal or membrane techniques requires that the plasma discarded be replaced by physiological solution, which in most cases is en albumin solution. Because essential plasma components as well as pathological ones, are removed during plasma exchange, techniques designed to remove only the pathological components would be highly desirable. Review of the disease states treated by plasma exchange reveals that mane of the marker solutes ere of f molecular weight larger (generally greater than 100 000 daltons) than albumin, suggesting membrane filtration as physical separation techniques for their removal.

With presently available membranes, selective passage of albumin (near 70 000 daltons) and lower molecular weight solutes with complete retention of larger molecular weight solutes is difficult to achieve. However, such a complete separation may not be desirable since many higher molecular weight solutes are normal components of plasma To apply some selectivity in the separation of the marker solutes with a high return to the normal constituents of plasma and thus no requirement for plasma product infusion, the technique of cryofiltration was applied.

Cryofiltration is the on—line technique of plasma treatment consisting of plasma cooling followed by membrane filtration. By cooling the plasma, cryogel is deposited on the membrane during the Filtration process. The cryogel has been shown to contain concentrated quantities of the marker solutes. Response to therapy in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis has been from good to excellent. In treatments, decreases in marker solutes have been noted coupled with improvement in clinical sympto—mology.

Membrane technology appears very promising in the separation and treatment of plasma on—line. Chronic treatment therapies appear safe and well tolerated by the patients.

New words

centrifugal technique – центрифужные технологии

plasma exchange – плазмообмен

therapeutic – терапевтический

metabolic – метаболический

multiple – множественный

extracorporeal – экстракорпоральный

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