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16. Neck. Root, fascies of the neck

Root of neck: This area communicates with the superior medi astinum through the thoracic inlet. Structures of the region include the following: subclavian artery and vein. The subclavian artery passes poste rior to the scalenus anterior muscle, and the vein passes ante rior to it. Branches of the artery include: vertebral artery; thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to the inferior thyroid, the transverse cervical, and the suprascapular arteries; Internal thoracic artery.

Phrenic nerve is a branch of the cervical plexus, which arises from C3, C4, and C5. It is the sole motor nerve to the diaphragm. It crosses the anterior scalene muscle from lateral to medial to enter the thoracic inlet.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. This mixed nerve conveys sensory information from the laryngeal; mucosa below the level of the vocal folds and provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid muscle.

Thoracic duct terminates at the junction of the left subcla—vian and the left internal jugular veins. On the right side of the body, the right lymphatic duct terminates in a similar fashion.

Fascias of the neck: Superficial investing fascia encloses the platysma, a muscle of facial expression, which has migrated to the neck.

Deep investing fascia surrounds the trapezius and ster—noclei – domastoid muscles.

Retropharyngeal (visceral) fascia surrounds the pharynx.

Prevertebral fascia invests the prevertebral muscles of the nee (i. e., longus colli, longus capitis). This layer gives rise to a derivative known as the alar fascia.

The major muscle groups and their innervations. A simple method of organizing the muscles of the neck is based on two basic principles: (1) The muscles may be arranged in group according to their functions; and (2) all muscles in a group share common innervation with one exception in each group.

Group 1: Muscles of the tongue. All intrinsic muscles plus all but one of the extrinsic muscles (i. e., those containing the suffix, glossus) of the tongue are supplied by CN XII. The one exception is palatoglossus, which is supplied by CN X.

Group 2: Muscles of the larynx. All but one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent la—ryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. The sole exception is the cricothyroid muscle, which is supplied by the external laryngeal branch of the vagus.

Group 3: Muscles of the pharynx. All but one of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pharynx are supplied by CNs X and XI (cranial portion). The sole exception is the stylopharyngeus muscle, which is supplied by CN IX.

Group 4: Muscles of the soft palate. All but one of the muscles of the palate are supplied by CNs X and XI (cranial portion). The sole exception is the tensor veli palatini, which is supplied CN V3.

Group 5: Infrahyoid muscles. All but one of the infrahyo—id muscles are supplied by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical olexus (C1, C2, and C3). The exception is the thy—rohyoid, which is supplied by a branch of C1. (This branch of C1 also supplies the geniohyoid muscle).

New words

neck – шея

cervical – цервикальный

vertebrae – позвоночник

cricoid cartilage – перстневидный хрящ гортани

scapulae – лопатка

scalene – лестничная мышца

brachial plexus – плечевое сплетение

vagus nerve – блуждающий нерв

hypoglossal nerve – подъязычный нерв

laryngeal branches – гортанные ветви








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