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15. Neck. Cervical vertebrae, cartilages, triangels

Cervical vertebrae: There are seven cervical vertebrae of which the first two are atypical. All cervical vertebrae have the foramina transversaria which produce a canal that transmits the vertbral artery and vein.

Atlas: This is the first cervical vertebra (C1). It has no body and leaves a space to accommodate the dens of the second cervical vertebra. Axis: This is the second cervical vertebra (C2). It has odontoid process, which articulates with the atlas as a pivot joint. Hyoid bone is a small U—shaped bone, which is suspended by muscles and ligaments at the level of vertebra C3.

Laryngeal prominence is formed by the lamina of the thyroid cartilage.

Cricoid cartilage. The arch of the cricoid is palpable below the thyroid cartilage and superior to the first tracheal ring (vertebral level C6). Triangles of the neck: The neck is divided into a posterior and an arterior triangle by the sternocleidomastoid muscle. These triangles are subdivided by smaller muscles into six smaller triangles. Posterior triangle is bound by the sternocleidomastoid, the clavicle, and the trapezius. Occipital triangle is located above the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Its contents include the following: CN XI Cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus are the lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, and supaclavicular nerves.

Subclavian (omoclavicular, supraclavicular) triangle is located below the inferior belly of the omohyoid. Its contents include the following: Brachial plexus supraclavicu—lar portion The branches include the dorsal scapular, long thoracic, subclavius, and suprascapular nerves.

The third part of the subclavian artery enters the subclavian triangle.

The subclavian vein passes superficial to scalenus anterior muscle. It receives the external jugular vein.

Anterior triangle is bound by the sternocleidomastoid muse the midline of the neck, and the inferior border of the body of the mandible. Muscular triangle is bound by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle, and the midline of the neck. Carotid (vascular) triangle is bound by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle and the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The carotid triangle contains the following: Internal jugular vein; Common carotid artery, bifurcates and form the internal and external carotid arteries. The external carotid artery has six branches (i. e., the superior thyroid; the ascending pharyngeal, the lingual, the facial, the occipital, and the posterior auricular arteries). Vagus nerve; hypoglossal nerve; internal and external laryngeal branches of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. Digastric (sub—mandibular) triangle is bound by the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle and the inferi or border of the body of the mandible. It contains the submandibu—lar salivary gland. Submental triangle is bound by the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, the hyoid bone, and the midline of the neck. It contains the submental lymph nodes.








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