48. The urinary system: kidneys
The urinary system is the major system involved in the excretion of metabolic waste products and excess water from the body It is also important in maintaining a homeostatic balance of fluids and electrolytes. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. Urine is produced by the kidneys and is then transmit ted via the ureters to the bladder for temporary storage The urethra is the final pathway that conveys urine to the exterior. This system also has an important endocrine function in the production of renin and erythropoietin, which influence blood pressure and red blood cell (RBC) formation, respec tively.
Each kidney is composed of stroma and parenchyma. The stroma consists of a tough fibrous connective tissue capsule and a delicate interstitial connective tissue com posed of fibroblasts, wandering cells, collagen fibrils, and a hydrated proteoglycan extracellular matrix, which is collec tively called the renal interstitium The parenchyma consists of more than one million elaborate uriniferous tubules that represent the functional units of the kidney.
The kidney contains a hilum, a cortex, and a medula. The hilum is located medially and serves entrance as the point of entrance and exit for the renal artery, renal veins, and ureter. The renal pelvis, the expanded upper, divides into two or three entrance into the kidney. These, in turn, divide into eight minor calyces.
The cortex forms the outer zone of the kidney.
The medulla appears as a series of medullary pyramids. Two or three pyramids may unite to form a papilla. Uriniferous tubules consist of two functionally related portions called the nephron and the collecting tubule
Glomerulus is made up of several anastomotic capillary loops interposed between an afferent and an efferent arteriole. Plasma filtration occurs in the glomerulus.
Bowman's capsule consists of an inner visceral layer and an outer parietal layer. The space between these layers, the urinary space, is continuous with the renal tubule.
Visceral layer is apposed to the glomerulus and closely follows the branches of the glomerular capillaries. The visceral layer is composed of a single layer of epithelial cells resting on a basal lamina, which is fused with the basal lamina of the capillary endothelium. The cells of the visceral layer, call podocytes.
Cytoplasmic extensions of podocytes rest on the basal lamina.
Between adjacent pedicles, a thin slit diaphragm assists in preventing large plasma proteins from escaping from the vascular system.
In fact, most of the components of the glomerular filtrate are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Loop of Henle is a hairpin loop of the nephron that extends into the medulla and consists of thick and thin segments. The thick proximal portion of Henle's loop, or the descending thick segment, is a direct medullary continuation of the cortical proximal convoluted tubule.
The thick distal portion of the loop of Henle, the ascending thick segment, ascends to the cortex and is continuous with distal convoluted tubule. The major function of the distal tubule is to reabsorb soduim and chloride from the tubular filtrate. Collecting tubules consist of arched and straight segments.New words
urea – моча
stroma – строма
parenchyma – паренхима
fibrous capsule – волокнистая капсула
delicate – тонкий
interstitial – промежуточный
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