41. Oral cavity
The oral cavity forms in the embryo from an in-pocketing of the skin, stomodeum; it is, thus, lined by ectoderm. Functionally, the mouth forms the first portion of both the digestive and respiratory systems. In humans the margins of the lips mark the junction between the outer skin and the inner mucous lining of the oral cavity The roof of the mouth consists of the hard palate and, behind this, the soft palate which merges into the oropharynx. The lateral walls consist of the distensible cheeks. The floor of the mouth is formed principally by the tongue and the soft tissues that lie between the two sides of the lower jaw, or mandible. The tongue, a muscular organ in the mouth, provides the sense of taste and assists in chewing, swallowing, and speaking. It is firmly anchored by connective tissues to the front and side walls of the pharynx, or throat, and to the hyoid bone in the neck. The posterior limit of the oral cavity is marked by the fauces, an apperture which leads to the pharynx. On either side of the fauces are two muscular arches covered by mucosa, the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches; between them lie masses of lymphoid tissue, the tonsils. Hiese are spongy lymphoid tissues composed mainly of lymphocytic cells held together by fibrous connective tissue. Suspended from the posterior portion of the soft palate is the soft retractable uvula. The palate develops from lateral folds of the primitive upper jaw. The hard palate, more anterior in position, underlies the nasal cavity The soft palate hangs like a curtain between the mouth and nasal pharynx. The hard palate has an intermediate layer of bone, supplied anteriorly by paired palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and posteriorly by the horizontal part of each palate bone. The oral surface of the hard palate is a mucous membrane covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. A submucosal layer contains mucous glands and binds the membrane firmly to the periosteum of the bony component. Above the bone is the mucous membrane that forms the floor of the nasal cavity.
The soft palate is a backward continuation from the hard palate. Its free margin connects on each side with two folds of mucous membrane, the palatine arches, enclosing a palatine tonsil. In the midline the margin extends into a fingerlike projection called uvula. The oral side of the soft palate continues as the covering of the hard palate, and the submucosa contains mucous glands. The intermediate layer is a sheet of voluntary muscle.
Besides separating the nasal passages from the mouth, the hard palate is a firm plate, against which the tongue manipulates food. In swallowing and vomiting the soft palate is raised to separate the oral from the nasal portion of the pharynx. This closure prevents food from passing upward into the nasopharynx and nose.New words
mouth – рот
lips – губы
junction – соединение
distensible – растяжимый
cheeks – щеки
tongue – язык
taste – вкус
chewing – жевание
swallowing – глотание42. Oral glands
All mammals are well supplied with oral glands. There are labial glands of the lips, buccal glands of the cheeks, lingual glands of the tongue, and palatine glands of the palate. Besides these, there are larger paired salivary glands. The parotid gland, near each ear, discharges into the vestibule. The submaxillary or submandibular gland lies along the posterior part of the lower jaw; its duct opens well forward under the tongue. The sublingual gland lies in the floor of the mouth. Saliva is a viscid fluid containing a mixture of all the oral secretions. It contains mucus, proteins, salts, and the enzymes ptyalin and maltase. Most of the ptyalin in human saliva is furnished by the parotid gland. The digestive action of saliva is limited to starchy food. Other uses of saliva include the moistening of food for easier manipulation by the tongue, the consequent facilitation of swallowing, and a lubrication by mucus that ensures a smoother passage of food down the esophagus to the stomach. Tonsils are spongy lymphoid tissues at the back of the throat, composed mainly of lymphocytic cells held together by fibrous connective tissue. There are three types of tonsils. The palatine tonsils, usually referred to as «the tonsils», are visible between the arches that extend from the uvula to the floor of the mouth. The pharyngeal tonsils, usually referred to as the adenoids, lie at the back of the throat. The lingual tonsils are on the upper surface of each side of the back of the tongue. The tonsils function to protect the pharynx and the remainder of the body from infectious organisms that become trapped in the mucous membrane lining the mouth, nose and throat. Chronic or acute inflammation of the tonsilses, called the tonsillitis.
The tongue, a muscular organ in the mouth, provides the sense of taste and assists in chewing, swallowing, and speaking. It is firmly anchored by connective tissues to the front and side walls of the pharynx, or throat, and to the hyoid bone in the neck.
The mammalian tongue is divided into two parts by a V-shaped groove, the terminal sulcus. At the apex of this V is a small blind pit, the foramen cecum. The larger part, or body, of the tongue belongs to the floor of the mouth, whereas the root forms the front wall of the oral pharynx. The body of the tongue is separated from the teeth and gums by a deep groove. A midline fold, the frenu-lum, is near he tip on the undersurface. The upper surface of the body, called the dorsum, has a velvety appearance because of filiform papillae. Distributed among these are occasional larger, rounded fungiform papillae and some large conical papillae. Immediately in front of the groove separating the body of the tongue from the root is a series of still larger vallate papillae arranged in a V-shaped row. The apex of the V points down the throat. Posteriorly along each side of the body of the tongue and near the root, is a series of parallel folds constituting the foliate papillae. The surface of the root of the tongue, which belongs to the pharynx, has no papillae but bears nodules containing lymphoid tissue.New words
buccal – относящийся ко рту или щеке
palatine – небный
salivary glands – слюнные железы
parotid gland – околоушная железа
sublingual – подязыковой
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