35. Nasopharynx and larynx

Nasopharynx is the first part of the pharynx.

It is lined by a pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar.

Epithelium with goblet cells: under the epithelium, a gland-containing connective tissue layer rests directly on the periosteum of the bone.

The cilia beat towards the oropharynx, which is composed of a stratified, squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium.

The pharyngeal tonsil, an aggregate of nodular and diffuse lymphatic tissue, is located on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx subjacent to the epithelium. Hypertrophy of this tissue as a result of chronic inflammation results in a condition known as adenoiditis. Larynx is a passageway that connects the pharynx to the trachea and contains the voicebox. Its walls are composed of cartilage held together by fibroelastic connective tissue.

The mucous layer of the larynx forms two pairs of elastic tissue folds that extend into the lumen. The upper pair are called the vestibular folds (or false vocal cords), and the lower pair con stitute the true vocal cords. The epithelium of the ventral side of the epiglottis and of the vocal cords is composed of stratified, squamous, nonkeratinized cells. The remainder of the larynx is lined with ciliated, pseudostratified, columnar epithelium. All cilia, from the larynx to the lungs, beat upward toward the nasopharynx.

New words

nasopharynx – носоглотка

first – сначала

pseudostratified – псевдомногослойный

ciliated – снабженный ресничками

columnar – колоночный

epithelium – эпителий

goblet cells – кубические клетки

gland-containing – содержащий железу

connective tissue – соединительная ткань

layer – слой

directly – непосредственно

periosteum – надкостница

bone – кость cilia – ресница

oropharynx – верхняя часть глотки

stratified – стратифицированный

squamous – чешуйчатый

nonkeratinized – некеритизированный

somewhere – где-нибудь, куда-нибудь, где-то, куда-то

36. Trachea

The trachea, a hollow cylinder supported by 16–20 cartilaginous rings, is continuous with the larynx above and the branching primary bronchi below.

Mucosa of the trachea consists of the typical respiratory epithelium, an unusually thick basement membrane, and an underlying lamina propria that is rich in elastin. The lamina propria contains loose elastic tissue with blood vessels, lymphatics, and defensive cells. The outer edge of the lamina propria is defined by a dense network of elastic fibers.

Submucosa consists of dense elastic connective tissue with seroriltfcous glands whose ducts open onto the surface of the epithelium.

Cartilage rings are C-shaped hyaline cartilage pieces whose free extremities point dorsally (posteriorly). They are covered by a perichondrium of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each of the cartilages. Smooth muscle bundles (trachealis muscle) and ligaments span the dorsal part of each cartilage.

Adventita a consists of peripheral dense connective tissue that binds the trachea to surrounding tissues.

Primary bronchi

The trachea branches at its distal end into the two primary bronchi. Short extrapulmonary segments of the primary bronchi exist before they enter the lungs at the hilus and then branch further. The histologic structure of the walls of the extrapulmonary segment of the primary bronchi is similar to that of the tracheal wall.

New words

hollow – пустота

cylinder – цилиндр

supported – поддержанный

cartilaginous rings – хрящевые кольца

larynx – гортань

above – выше

branching – переход

primary bronchi – первичные бронхи

below – ниже

mucosa – слизистая оболочка

typical – типичный

respiratory epithelium – дыхательный эпителий

an unusually – нетипитчно

thick – толстый

basement – основание

underlying – основной

lamina – тонкая пластинка

rich – богатый

elastin – эластин

loose – свободный

vessel – сосуд

lymphatics – лимфатический

defensive cells – защитные клетки

outer – внешний

edge – край

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